Paris UN Climate Conference 2015 was opened yesterday, what is a day earlier than was planned before. The conference’s participants are expected to sign a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which will replace the Kyoto Protocol.
The French authorities and the United Nations decided to hold the UN Climate Change Conference on schedule – from 30 November to 11 December in Paris, in spite of the series of terrorist attacks in the French capital two weeks ago.
The French authorities banned any demonstration or picket lines of more than two people. Nevertheless, a number of climate activists broke out with protests in the French capital. They weren’t stopped even by the fact that 24 French environmental activists were placed under house arrest “in order to prevent possible riots” on Friday. More than 5 th. people formed a three-kilometer human chain along the lines of the alleged climate march. About 20 thousand pairs of shoes symbolizing the missing protesters were laid out on Place de la République – even Vatican sent one of the pairs. In the afternoon, clashes between about 200 protesters and police broke out: the first threw shoes at the police, while the latter was spraying the tear gas. More than 2 thousand climatic marches and demonstrations were held in major cities around the world, with tens of thousands of people as participants.
Formal negotiations on the new agreement began a day ahead of schedule – in the evening on Sunday. The new agreement’s text was designed in Paris in December 2014. It was drawn up so early to avoid the situation with new negotiating texts being proposed literally every day during negotiations. Recall that this was the reason for which the Copenhagen climate summit failed in 2009, when the participants intended to adopt a new post-Kyoto agreement. In recent months, when any new changes in the agreement were already impossible, delegations only cleaned out the negotiating text by choosing one option among several possible.
In the new agreement, all the countries, both developed and developing, will take responsibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Overall, the new protocol will be drawn up not from top to bottom (i.e., from a single global goal to national quotas, as in the case of the Kyoto Protocol), but vice versa, from the bottom to up (when countries are offering national targets). 176 countries responsible for 95% of global greenhouse gas emissions are presenting their goals at the Paris conference. These should result in reduce of greenhouse gases emissions, what, in turn, will lead to increase in global temperature of 3-3,7 ° C compared to the level of the middle of XVIII century.
So far, it is assumed that the specific targets to reduce emissions will be put in separate applications. The United States has always insisted on this – otherwise, it would be difficult to ratify the legally binding agreement. The goals are to be updated every five years. In addition, the new agreement will largely depend on adaptation to climate change, as well as the financing policy for reducing emissions and adaptation in developing countries.